Betta Fish CareFreshwater Fish Profiles

Betta Fish Care Information;

Veiltail (VT), Plakat, Crowntail (CT), Halfmoon (HM)

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Updated 3-1-19

Betta aquarium Fish Profiles, informationGeneral Information

Betta Fish Care Guide

For more in depth specific Betta Information, please scroll below this section.

Size: Females 1.5 inches (4 cm.) max normally although specimens that are well cared for or old can be bigger. Males 3 inches (8 cm.) max


Scientific Name: Betta splendens

Natural Habitat: The Chao Phraya River drainage of Thailand and the Mekong River Drainage of Cambodia and Eastern Thailand.
Please see this article for more about the subject of Betta Habitat:

Recommended Tank Size/Temperament: Recommended tank size/gallons: Generally at least 1.5 gallons; 2 1/2 gallons OR MORE is better.
While it is debatable whether or not a Betta is more happy in a 10 gallon aquarium versus a 1 gallon bowl; it is a fact that the smaller the "container", the more quickly problems can get deadly.
If you are a beginner, most experts would suggest the largest tank possible and to make sure filtration and a consistently warm room or reliable heat source are provided.

The above noted, I have kept many 100s of Bettas over the years, most notably in one client's corporate offices where many of the office personnel had their own personal Betta bowl on their desk that we maintained along with the many larger aquariums in the building/office as well.
What was most noteworthy is that the while a larger container definitely made care easier and the likelihood of disaster less likely, it was not the main determining factor for health and fish longevity. Rather it was near 0 ammonia/nitrites, a stable pH, optimum mineral Cations (aka electrolytes), and optimum fish nutrition (Including not over feeding by the office person).
Often, but not always, to do this required a good but small filter (a good sponge filter clearly exceeded the small UG and corner filters for this) as well as the regular addition of minerals via AAP Wonder Shells.

Betta Care, Sponge filter use for filtrationFiltration: Although many Betta keepers do not maintain filters in their Betta tanks/bowls with good success (in part due to often excessive water changes in my experience/opinion), I strongly recommend some sort of method of bio filtration.

Whether it be a small Hydro Sponge Mini Filter OR if a filter is simply not practical the use of Ceramic Bio Rings as a Bowl substrate or better yet, SeaChem Matrix is strongly suggested as this product will over time control nitrates as well as ammonia and nitrites. As well Volcanic Rock (which is very economical) can also be used on the bottom of a Betta tank as a bio media source, although I recommend placing some marbles or other object around the sharp edges.

Whether it be Matrix on the bottom or in a medicine bottle as well as aquarium capable volcanic rock, these can be used without circulation, although some circulation will improve results.

Product Resources:
*Hydro Sponge Mini Filter from AAP
*SeaChem Matrix Aquarium Nitrifying Filter Media from AAP
*Aquarium Capable Volcanic Rock from AAP
*Nirox Ceramic Bio Filter Rings

See this article or the link above for Matrix by AAP for a picture of a method to utilize Matrix in a used medicine bottle for ammonia/nitrite/nitrate control:
Betta Fin Rot; Ammonia Control.

If either of these products or similar are used, it is important that these are only mildly rinsed with old bowl/tank water or de-chlorinated tap water.


Typical Food: Carnivore-Diet should be meat based (preferably aquatic based meats such Whole Menhaden or White fish meal, shrimp).
Betta Pellets, frozen or freeze dried foods such as Blood worms, Brine Shrimp, etc, or homemade foods are acceptable.
It is recommended to soak ALL dry foods for 5 minutes prior to feeding as this can prevent air in the intestinal tract that can lead to problems including internal Aeromonas infections.
Further Information: Aeromonas Bacterium in Fish

For improved immunity, I would recommend soaking your frozen or FD foods in a soup of Spirulina or to "gut load" live foods with Spiulina Flakes.
Hikari Spirulina Enhanced Brine Shrimp is an excellent supplemental Betta Food.

For much more in depth fish nutrition information, please see this article:
"Proper Aquatic nutrition"

Fish Food Resources:
*AAP Custom All Natural Carnivore Fish Food Crumbles (Recommended)
*Sanyu Betta Pellets
*Hikari Betta Gold Pellets
*Freeze Dried Brine Shrimp Gut Load with Spirulina Algae
*Freeze Dried Bloodworms, Shrimp, etc

Water Parameters: An adaptable TROPICAL fish, Bettas can do well in relatively diverse water conditions and temperatures.
However a stable tropical environment is still best, which include temperatures over 72 F and a stable pH (as a fluctuating pH is more problematic than what the actual number is on the pH scale); More important than pH is KH for pH stability and the very important, electrolytes for osmoregulation which are found in GH measurements (which are best over 100 ppm GH, 6 dGH).
From my many years in professional aquarium maintenance, I cannot emphasize more that far too many Betta owners chase the so-called perfect pH, when Betta owners should simply stabilize the pH via KH whether at 7.5 or 6.5. Then the maintenance of positive mineral ions (Cations) is another must that is often forgotten by Betta owners from my many interactions over the years.

Regular water changes and mineral blocks can aid in mineral ion maintenance as these provide constant essential positive mineral ions.
Fresh AAP Wonder Shells are a product my aquarium maintenance company has used, even in Betta Bowls with testable positive results versus non use in control groups (these are also available in a medicated version that is useful for new fish introduction disease prevention).
Generally I would use these at about 1/4 to 1/2 the dosage of the package recommendation when used for Bettas, as the main purpose is for mineral Cations, which only a small fraction of an AAP Wonder Shell is needed for. Thise is another reason a FRESH AAP Wonder Shell should be used, NOT the old clearance product sold by discounters. Otherwise it takes much more Wonder Shell, thus driving up GH more than need be for the same results (the end cost when using fresh product is also less, since fraction dosages only need be used).

As an example, the small size which is recommended for about a 2 gallon aquarium, I would use for a 5 gallon or break in half using a hammer to a straight screw driver.

This video helps demonstrate how mineral Cations remove oxidizers (including chlorine):
AAP Wonder Shell, Oxidizers, chlorine, Aquarium Co-op
VIDEO: Aquarium Redox Part 2 | Oxidizers & Reducers | AAP Wonder Shell Experiment

Pillow Moss for Betta aquariumUse of tannin based products (such as Frog/Pillow Moss) or products that contain Indian Almond leaves (such as Atison's Betta Spa) can be useful for a breeding environment and for general natural environment stimulation as well as Aeromonas bacterial prevention (which can be common in small tanks in particular with poor circulation).

What is also noteworthy is many users of Pillow Moss report that their Bettas love hiding in this, providing a natural method of calming for the fish.
Pillow Moss is pictured to the left.

AAP Bettamax With over breeding, small containers, and over all often poor care that Bettas often receive before the owner purchases (or rescues) their Betta, fin & tail infections are common.
I suggest using AAP Bettamax as both a preventative and mild to moderate treatment for these issues (vastly superior to the Melafix Betta product; Bettafix in that it contains ingredients that actually work on the gram negative pathogens so common to Betta issues, which Bettafix does not).

Best Aquarium & Pond Medications
AAP Professional Aquarium & Pond Medications


Product Resources:
*AAP Bettamax (contains Nitrofurazone, Methylene Blue, PVP, Vitamins, NaCl, Sulfas: methazine, diazine, and merazine)
*Wonder Shells; with Unique Version ONLY available at American Aquarium
*American Aquarium Pillow Moss Natural Acid Buffer
*Atison's Betta Spa from AAP

For further information about GH/KH/pH, please read this article:
Calcium, Electrolytes, GH, KH and more in Aquariums In particular the Amazon River/SE Asia Section is a MUST read for serious Betta Keeper due to so much anecdotal information about Betta water parameters

Cleaning: Often many Betta keepers "over clean" their tanks, bowls, in part from the feedback I have received over the years because it is the only way to maintain low ammonia and nitrates.
However this often results stress from constant fluctuation in the Betta aquarium/bowls bio environment, assuming a bio environment is even established at all from all the constant cleanings.

Best would be a 50% water change or even less and the frequency would be as infrequently as possible so as to maintain a reasonably low nitrate level (under 40-50 ppm) & stable KH. With the filtration methods noted earlier in this article, along with water parameter maintenance methods also already mentioned, this should not be difficult at all and not require water changes any more than once per week or even less frequent.

Further Reference: Aquarium Cleaning; Bowl

I also recommend this article for Betta Keepers since many are kept in smaller tanks/bowls thus amplifying the need for the best fish care possible:
A Healthy Aquarium, Disease Prevention

For an article about heaters, including a section about a unique way (that works) to reliably heat Bettas in small tanks/bowls, please read this article:
"Aquarium Answers; Aquarium Heaters, including Betta tanks"

Additional Information: “Over a Copper Moon Betta”
“Caring for a betta at home or office”
Betta Habitat; "Betta splendens" Wild Habitat

Plakat Bettas, PKPLAKAT (pronounced Pla-cat, Plaket, or Pla-cot)

Description: Short finned Betta
Scientific Name: Betta Splendens. The traditional form is the original wild form. It can be found in round or spade tail. The original form was red and blue. This the ancestor of all the Bettas we have developed today. They are also known as Plakat Thai in Thailand (Info by Wally Nida).
Natural Habitat: Like all domestic Betta these fish are raised in captivity and don’t have a “natural” habitat. The ancestors of this fish were wild caught in the flood lands or rice fields of Asia and cross bred with other Betta types such as Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Malaysian. It is difficult to distinguish which betta came from which at this point.
Tank Size: This fish can live in a tank as little as 1/2g but that is not recommended. A 1g or bigger is a better choice. These fish can be kept in a community tank with the right tank mates. A 10g or bigger is suggested.
Water Parameters: 78* to 86* F. Good clean water with frequent water changes. Temperament: Very aggressive to own kind and will kill an unwilling/placid mate if not watched carefully when spawning.
Feeding: Carnivore-Diet should be meat based. Betta pellets, frozen foods, or homemade foods are acceptable.

Contributor Notes:
It is also known as a Short Finned Fighter. This type is fish is bred in Asia as a true fighter. Many Asian’s bred these fish to fight. It is part of their culture. These fish are mistaken as females at many pet stores (especially Wal-mart). To tell the difference between a common female found at a pet store and a male Plakat is that the male will be bigger and thicker. Also when placed near another male, he will flare and display. Female Betta can flare but not as “wide” as the male can. He will also have a gill beard that drops down below his chin. Females do not have this.

PLAKAT History

The plakat is just the short finned version of the common Betta Splendens. There are wild-type plakats (which look like the bettas caught in their natural habitats), Traditional Show plakats (symmetrical wild-type finnage with some enhancement), Modern Show plakats (multi-branching caudals, extended dorsals, longer anals/ventrals, cultivated colors) and Fighter plakats (bettas that have been selectively bred for fighting ability, such as aggression, sharper teeth, harder scales and longevity).

Plakats are generally more active than the long finned version, not being hampered down with excessive finnage. This, along with their resistance to disease, makes them a favorite among betta enthusiasts and collectors.

Until now there is no clear definition on what a plakat is or any specific detail: Traditional Show Plakat. There isn't any judging standard for a show plakat and also no clear definition on what is and is not a Traditional Show Plakat.

Plakat derives from the Thai word Plakad which means fighting fish and does not really restrict to one specific strain of betta. These Plakad can be wild caught or bred in captivity.

The purpose of this article is to emphasize plakats as a Traditional Show Plakat and not for fighting. Before we can appreciate what a show plakat is, we should have a basic understanding of those strains developed for fighting. Those plakad that are used for fighting are carefully bred and crossbred.

There are two main types of wild Plakad. Namely the Plakad Pah and Plakad Lukmoh.

The Plakad Pah can be found almost everywhere in Thailand and has a longer body but no stamina for long fight. The Plakad Lukmoh is hardly found in the wild but bred in captive as it is tougher than the Plakad Pah.

Some breeders cross bred the Plakad Lukmoh with Plakad Pah and is called "Sangasi" in Thai language (which means Hybrid) or short 'Plasang' These Hybrids are not as tough as the Plakad Lukmoh and are cross bred to fight with Plakad Pah and they also look like the Plakad Pah.

'Plakad' here denotes fighting fish (which is used simply for fighting) and they can be found or bred in various parts of Thailand or some other Asian countries. Some of the common types of Plakats that are used in fighting are Betta Imbellis, Betta Samaragdina and Mahachai Betta. They are also cross bred to improve on their fighting skills and thus resulted in hybrids.

Betta Imbellis, Betta Samaragdina and Mahachai Betta are usually classified under the Wild category instead of Plakat category in a competition show. So we must not confuse the word Plakat with Plakad, as Plakad can be other species that are used for fighting.

So Plakat that are used for fighting are bred and cross bred from the wild caught and these short fin betta are also called "Plakat Morh" in Thai language.
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Veiltail Bettas, VTVEILTAIL;

Description: Long finned Betta. The original Domestic Betta in the USA
Scientific Name: Betta Splendens
Natural Habitat: Like all domestic Betta these fish are raised in captivity and don’t have a “natural” habitat. The ancestors of this fish were wild caught in the flood lands or rice fields of Asia.
Tank Size: This fish can live in a tank as little as 1/2g but that is not recommended. A 1g or bigger is a better choice. These fish can be kept in a community tank with the right tank mates. A 10g or bigger is suggested.
Water Parameters: 78* to 86* F. Good clean water with frequent water changes. Temperament: Very easy going. This fish is very easy to breed and is usually what hobbyists start out with.
Feeding: Carnivore-Diet should be meat based. Betta pellets, frozen foods, or homemade foods are acceptable.

Contributor Notes: (By Suzie Q, aka Lori) Veil Tail is the first Betta available in the USA. It gets its name because the tail is long and looks like a bride’s veil. These fish are widely bred in the pet industry. To show breeders they are known as “mutt” fish. The ancestry can not be traced because of them being massively bred for the pet stores. VT’s come in many different colors from “Blonde” (flesh colored) to almost black and any combination of fin color.
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Halfmoon Bettas, HM, male, femaleHALFMOON;

Description: Long finned Betta. This Betta, when bred correctly, will make a D when fully flared. This is the fish that most Breeders breed for show.
Scientific Name: Betta Splendid
Natural Habitat: Like all domestic Betta, these fish are raised in captivity and don’t have a “natural” habitat. The ancestors of this fish were wild caught in the flood lands or rice fields of Asia.
Tank Size: This fish can live in a tank as little as 1/2g but that is not recommended. A 1g or bigger is a better choice. These fish can be kept in a community tank with the right tank mates. A 10g or bigger is suggested.
Water Parameters: 78* to 86* F. Good clean water with frequent water changes.
Temperament: These fish are a little harder to breed than the Veil Tail. They are not as aggressive as the Plakat.
Feeding: Carnivore-Diet should be meat based. Betta pellets, frozen foods, or homemade foods are acceptable.

Contributor Notes: The Halfmoon were developed by Peter Goettner, an American breeder that bred a fish that was well ahead of its time.

In 1982, American breeder Peter Goettner bred a fish that was well ahead of its time. This fish was a green STM with a caudal of almost 180 degrees, and was dubbed 'Mr. Great' by the admiring betta community. Goettner revealed that he acquired the stock that ultimately produced Mr. Great (or 'Mr. G' as he was later called) by another breeder, Parris Jones of the US, who had been improving on a line he had procured from yet another American breeder, Chuck Hale, in 1977. Between 1983 and 1986 a group of French breeders began importing stock from several top American breeders, including Goettner and Jones, one of which was Guy Delaval.

Delaval was already an accomplished Guppy breeder, and several years before had decided to try his hand at bettas. He started with pet store fare, working the quality up to spec by selectively breeding the finest fish from his spawning attempts in a very particular pattern: brother to sister, and then father to daughter, for several generations. A peculiar feature of Delaval's line was that many of them had a white edge to their fins, a trait still seen in many Halfmoon bettas today. As the quality of Delaval's bettas increased, he began to realize he was on to something special, and worked even harder to perfect his 'ideal'. Working with only four tanks and about twenty jars, Delaval bred hard and culled hard, keeping only the very best to continue the line.

In 1987, Delaval exhibited his fish at a betta show in Lyon, France. Although the early Halfmoons (as they were later to be called) were amazing in both form and symmetry, they did not get much more than a passing interest from the judges at the show, mainly due to the fact that judges were used to seeing a particular form in the show betta and, as a result, were loathe to change their vision of the 'ideal' show betta. At that time, the types of betta that was winning shows were roundtails and doubletails, and Delaval's fish probably looked eons apart from what they were accustomed to seeing. After the show, the President of the Anabantoid Association of Germany wrote a brief report on the show, generously praising the winners and contestants. Of Delaval's groundbreaking entries he wrote only that they were 'nice'.

In 1988 Delaval then exhibited his fish at a show in LeMann, France. Although his fish were again overlooked in the judging, at least one fellow breeder was thunderstruck by what Delaval had been able to accomplish: Rajiv Masillamoni. Masillamoni had a habit of carrying with him at all times a photograph of Mr. G, which he showed to everyone at every betta event he was able to attend, enthusing about the perfection of the form and asking where he might acquire a fish of it's caliber. Needless to say, when he first laid eyes on Delaval's entries, which were even better in spread and symmetry than what he had dared to dream, the photo of Mr. G slipped forgotten from his fingertips.
He immediately began drilling Delaval about his fish, and was able to purchase two of the three 180 degree caudal males that Delaval had brought with him to the show, as well as five other males and two females from the same line. Masillamoni spirited his treasures back home to Switzerland, where he began breeding them with a passion.
To his shock and horror he came to realize that every one of the seven males he had purchased from Delaval were unable to spawn properly. Although they would build a nest and court the female, they didn't seem able to perform the embrace and sire offspring. This didn't seem to be a fault of the form so much as a result of too much inbreeding, confirmed when Masillamoni consulted two other breeders who had acquired stock from Delaval -- Laurent Chenot and Marc Maurin -- who reported similar failures.
Reduced to relying on the females alone, Masillamoni crossed them against pet store bettas, producing fish which were nowhere close to the quality of the original Delaval stock in either form or symmetry. When a stroke of bad luck killed one of the females, it seemed the entire venture would be doomed. However, Fortune was with Masillamoni and his project, and he was soon introduced to an American IBC member who happened to be visiting Switzerland and was able to give him a melano doubletail male from the Parris Jones line. Masillamoni bred the male to his one remaining Delaval female, and was rewarded with one fish that stood out from the rest. The fish was given the number 'R39', and was a green male with a perfect 180 degree caudal fin.

Desperate to continue the line, Masillamoni bred the fish with every female in his possession, and then teamed up with Laurent Chenot and breeder Jean Luc Corso, who bred him to their females as well. The offspring of these crosses formed the very foundation of the first true Halfmoon breeding line, and it can be reasonably stated that all Halfmoon fish today are descendants of this one male -- R39.

In 1991 Masillamoni brought his 180 degree bettas with him to the 25th Annual IBC Convention, held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin that year. He was flabbergasted to discover that, once again, the judges were completely overlooking his fish in favor of the more standard fin types of doubletail and roundtail. However, the European entries did not escape the notice of several top breeders of that time, including Jeff Wilson, Peter Goettner, Parris Jones, Paul Hardy, and John Benn, who brought some of Masillamoni's fish home with them to breed into their own show lines. It was at this show that Jeff Wilson first quipped that the new tail shape looked like a half moon, and the term 'Halfmoon' stuck.

Inspired by the mutual interest, Masillamoni joined forces with Wilson and Laurent Chenot to try to cement the trait into a solid line. The three breeders frequently exchanged their best fish, with one fish often being passed to all three, siring spawns in America, France, and Switzerland. By spawning the best fish from all three ventures, they were able to more quickly and effectively produce the Halfmoon betta, carefully documenting in both film and writing whether each successive generation was better than the previous.

In 1992, the Masillamoni and Wilson decided to show their best Halfmoon fish at the 1992 IBC Convention in Alabama, quietly making a pact between them that, even if their fish were again rejected in competition, they would continue working the line. Although they showed many Halfmoons, only one of their fish placed -- a green that took 2nd in Form and Finnage Variations. The class titles and Best of Show were again awarded to the popular roundtailed entries.

The Halfmoon team was saved from disappointment by the increased interest shown by other breeders. Eventually enough interest was shown to warrant a new betta club just to perpetuate and preserve the Halfmoon form, and the International Betta Splendens Club was born. While breeding and exchanging stock over international borders, Masillamoni was approached by Marc Maurin, who requested a Halfmoon pair that would serve as his starter stock in France. At that time, Masillamoni only had 5 Halfmoon males good enough to breed, but he nevertheless selected his least favorite from these and gave it to Maurin. Two weeks later, Masillamoni was preparing to leave for yet another betta show in America when Maurin sent his male back to him from France, stating that it would not spawn. Although Masillamoni did not consider the fish of good enough quality to meet his standards, he made the last minute decision to include it with the other entries he was bringing to the US, including the four superior Halfmoon spawn brothers.

In transit to the show, Masillamoni was detained by a flight attendant, who informed him that the bag containing his 25 show fish was too large to fit in the overhead compartment and would have to be taken to the cargo hold. Understandably he protested, informing her that the bag contained valuable live fish on their way to an important fish show in America, and he would not let them out of his sight. When the attendant insisted, Masillamoni (his jaw set firmly in determination) informed her that he would not be taking the flight if his bag couldn't be kept in the cabin. With both parties frustrated, a compromise was finally reached -- the attendant would take the fish into First Class, where they could complete the journey in the roomier overhead compartments.

Midway through the flight, Masillamoni decided to check on how his fish were getting on, but when he inquired after them in First Class he was told they had been moved to the cargo hold after all. Fearing the worst, he searched frantically for his bag, and finally found it in the unpressurized hold. All 25 bags had burst, and the fish were barely alive and flipping weakly in their empty bags. Panicked, Masillamoni made such a ruckus that he attracted the attention of the Chief Steward, who happened to be a fish lover and took control of the situation. He provided plastic bags, and ordered the stewardesses to bring him bottled water. Because it was refrigerated, the stewardesses were instructed to warm each bottle up with a hair dryer until the water was room temperature, and he and Masillamoni then carefully placed the struggling bettas into fresh bags of water. Happily, every fish survived.

Because he was an apprentice Judge, Masillamoni was kept quite busy at the show, but couldn't help but notice that, once again, his Halfmoons were getting overlooked in favor of the roundtails and deltas. Concealing his disappointment, he instead threw himself into the task at hand and tried not to think about it. However, while lining up the class winners for the Best of Show judging, he noticed the first place award on one very unique green male -- a Halfmoon! On closer inspection, he found that it was the very same fish returned to him by Marc Maurin, the fish he did not consider good enough to compete. Somehow, even though the judges had failed to even place the better Halfmoon specimens, this fish had taken the Turquoise/Green class and was now in the running for Best of Show.

As one after another of the Best of Show contestants were eliminated, Masillamoni was biting his fingernails. The green Halfmoon was still in the running. The judges continued to pare away the competition, until the decision was left between the Halfmoon entry and a royal blue male bred by Peter Goettner which showed a 160 degree caudal spread. It was clearly evident that the judges preferred the Goettner fish, but the outcome remained in contention. As a last resort, they called in a highly experienced Judge -- Mr. Jim Williams -- and asked his opinion. Since this was the same judge that placed the Goettner fish first in the Blue class, Masillamoni felt the matter was already decided. However, Williams examined both fish carefully under a bright flashlight for ten minutes, and then switched to a magnifying class. 'There it is!' he finally announced to the waiting crowd. 'The blue is missing a scale.' IBC Convention Best of Show Male was awarded to the Green Halfmoon from Switzerland.

As it happened, a reporter from FAMA Magazine was in attendance, and recognized the Halfmoon as extraordinary. He featured the Best of Show male on the cover of the magazine and also ran a story about the origin of the Halfmoon. With the increased exposure, more breeders throughout the United States and Europe became intrigued by the form, and clamored to acquire fish from the line. Peter Goettner, Sieg Illig, Leo Buss, Bonnie McKinley and others started breeding for the 180 degree caudal form. A combination of the popularity of the breeders and the quality of the fish helped to popularize the form, and soon Halfmoon bettas were winning competitions across the United States. Always passionate about their little native fish, breeders from Thailand sent special requests to European and American breeders for Halfmoon stock in the late 1990's, and many breeders were able to part with enough good breeding fish to give the Asians a leg up into the tree. With their ideal breeding and raising conditions, they were able to take the form and run with it, and by 2003 were consistently producing fish of an even better quality than those seen in Europe and America. Today the Halfmoon form is the overwhelming preference of breeders the world over, who strive to breed the very best while incorporating a passion and science unseen in most other hobbies. It is truly the form which redefined the standards of the Show Betta.
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Crowntail Bettas, CTCROWNTAIL;

Special Thanks for the pictures to Bettaholic from Betta Breeders Forum
Description: Long finned Betta. This Betta has little webbing between the rays of the tail with give it a crown look.
Scientific Name: Betta Splendid
Natural Habitat: Like all domestic Betta these fish are raised in captivity and don’t have a “natural” habitat. The ancestors of this fish were wild caught in the flood lands or rice fields of Asia.
Tank Size: This fish can live in a tank as little as 1/2g but that is not recommended. A 1g or bigger is a better choice. These fish can be kept in a community tank with the right tank mates. A 10g or bigger is suggested.
Water Parameters: 78* to 86* F. Good clean water with frequent water changes.
Temperament: These fish are a little harder to breed than the Veil Tail. They are not as aggressive as the Plakat.
Feeding: Carnivore-Diet should be meat based. Betta pellets, frozen foods, or homemade foods are acceptable.

Contributor Notes:
Crown Tails like the Veil Tail are becoming widely bred for the pet industry.


The Crowntail was founded 1997 in West Jakarta, Slipi, Indonesia, and the creator was an Indonesian breeder named Achmad Yusuf (Iyus), who called it 'cupang serit' in Indonesian. When Henry Yin showed this fish in one of the IBC shows, he named it CROWNTAIL.

Here the tail rays extend beyond the tail edge, producing a crown-like appearance (sometimes referred to as "Combtail"). How much the rays may extend depends on the genetic makeup of the fish. The crowntail trait can be found in bettas of any tail type and shape. For instance it can be seen in VT, D, SD, HM (CTHM = half-sun) and DT. The crowntail gene is recessive (or actually intermediary), but single tail carriers most of the time already show more or less extended rays beyond the tail edge.

For the purpose of showing in the CT class, Crowntails are defined as bettas exhibiting at least 33% reduction in webbing versus ray length in each of the three primary fins (caudal, anal and dorsal). This requirement must be demonstrated in all three primary fins but does not need to be exhibited between all rays to meet the minimum requirement to be classified as a Crowntail betta.

Single ray - In the 'SR' CT, web margins are, ideally, uniform and webbing reduction is equal between primary rays and rays with branches.

Cross Ray - The crossing of rays ('CR') is manifested by pairs of ray extensions that curve over each other.

Double Ray - In the 'DR' CT, webbing is reduced at the two levels: one between a pair of rays and the other, more profoundly, between two ray branches. Breeders put a premium on double-ray and 4 ray extension Crowntails. These traits are to be regarded as neutral and are not to be pointed above single ray extended Crowntails. Four ray and even eight ray extensions are less common and the effect is almost always confined to the caudal fin only.

Double Double Ray - 'DDR' is double double ray, hence a four ray extended branching.

Random Ray - The term 'RR' basically means that the caudal spread has mixed single ray, double ray, 3 rays and 4 rays extended branching all mixed up. It is used to describe those whose extended ray patterns are not fixed.

For the purpose of judging CT in IBC sanctioned showing, these are the desired traits judges are encouraged to look for:

1. 33% reduction in webbing material for each primary fin is minimum. 50% reduction in webbing material in all three primary fins is ideal.

2. Ray extensions to be uniform in balance, length and spacing (symmetrical).

3. Double and 4 ray extensions in dorsal and anal fins to match caudal extensions.

Undesirable traits for Crowntails:

1. Less than 33% reduction in webbing material in 2 or all 3 primary fins is a DISQUALIFYING FAULT.

2. Less than 33% reduction in webbing material in 1 primary fin is a SEVERE fault.

3. Ray extensions of different lengths are MINOR faults unless the rays are in even, repeating pattern.

4. Random rays, for example, single protruding rays in a double ray or 4 ray Crowntail, should not be regarded more than a MINOR fault and ignored if there is only a single ray protruding ray.

5. Curled or bent ray extensions are each a MINOR fault.

6. Non-symmetrical spaces between ray extensions are each a MINOR fault. Back To Top

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Also replacement sponges and parts for Hydro Sponge

AAP Aquatronics aquarium treatments
AAP Aquatronics Aquarium Treatments

Superior to all others with treatments not available ANYWHERE else!

Zoomed Hammock & Betta Log
Zoomed Hammock & Betta Log

Unique Zoomed Betta Hammock

Pillow, Peat Moss for aquariumFrog Moss
A decoration that also acts as strong natural acid buffer lowering KH and pH for softer water preferring aquarium fish. Excellent when combined with the use of Wonder Shells

AAP Wonder Shell
Wonder Shells

The premier product for a constant supply of positive mineral ions which is important for Redox balance and in turn fish immunity .
Medicated version as well.

Fluidized Bed Aquarium Filter
Fluidized Bed Aquarium Filter

The TMC Premium Fluidized Sand Bed Aquarium Filters, Superior Design when compared to Lifeguard.

Aquarium Filter KitAquarium Filter Kits
Fro Filter Kits to use with your Betta (I recommend air powered kits with an option air diffuser for Bettas).

Betta Spa Indian Almond Leaf Extract
Atison's Betta Spa Clear
Betta Spa by Ocean Nutrition contains wild almond leaf extract to simulate the natural environment of the Betta fish.

For large Betta Breeder operations (with centralized systems), consider a UV Sterilizer:
Best Aquarium UV SterilizerUV Sterilizers
TMC, Terminator, & Custom UV Sterilizers/ Clarifiers;
as well as Replacement UV Bulbs, Quartz Sleeves, Ballasts.




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