Aquarium, Pond Information

Aquarium Information, Pond Information

"American Aquarium Information Library"
| Fish & Pond Help | Advice | Research

The Internet's premier aquatic resource library with researched, up-to-date aquarium/pond information, articles, help, & resources.

Our Mission has ALWAYS been Information FIRST, sales 2nd!

Including a link to: “Aquarium and Pond Answers”

Based on over 40 years of professional aquarium maintenance, experience, and research.

Updated 01/21/23

Unlike many aquatic websites, much of our research is outside the aquarium industry/hobby, so as to not rely on common anecdotal assumptions (such as Redox).
We also use aquaculture, horticulture, medical, lighting industry, and university research papers to pair with Carl Strohmeyer's professional experience & mentoring by other professionals dating back to 1977 to compile many of our articles.
These articles are NOT based on fads, popular aquarium keeping YouTube personalities, or purchasing popularity like some new-comers that are now popular despite little actual experience, mentoring or research.

Since these articles are based on aquarium keeping expert Carl Strohmeyer and his decades of research/experience, we do not accept guest articles which might water down credibility by selling out. Please consider Everything Aquatic for this.

See our Summary Basic Aquatic Information Bio for more about the history of our articles.

Please DONATE to keep this information free!

Search AAP Supplies or Information

AAP MeWe Page
AAP MeWe Page

Resources to keep your aquatic pets, (fish and more), happy and healthy!

  1. Frequently Asked Questions Quick answers to common aquatic questions. Along with answers for purchasing @ American Aquarium Products.

  2. Aquarium Answers Posts from aquatic forums and more. Check this article (blog) regularly for new aquatic answers backed by research you will not find anywhere else!

  3. Why Use a UV Sterilizer? Information about how UVC works

  4. Aquarium and Pond Sponge Filters

  5. Calcium, Magnesium, and KH in Aquariums

  6. Aquarium Medications & Treatments

  7. Clear Pond - Pond Care, Filtration, and General Help

  8. Aquarium Filters and Filtration

  9. Basic Freshwater Aquarium Principles

  10. Aquarium Plant Care - FERTS, CO2, Substrate, and more

  11. Saltwater (Marine) - Principles and Information

  12. Aquarium Disease Prevention

  13. Aquarium Lighting - The premier aquatic light resource

  14. Goldfish Care - Basics

  15. Aquarium Cleaning

  16. Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle and Aquarium Cycling

  17. The Redox Potential/Balance - Proper Aquatic Health

  18. Aquarium Ich - Ichthyophthirius Multifilis and Cryptocaryon Irritans

  19. Freshwater Velvet and Marine Oodinium

  20. Fish Nutrition - Ingredients for proper nutrition, growth, and health

  21. Spirulina Algae - Health Benefits for Tropical/Marine Fish, and Goldfish

  22. Goldfish Feeding Basics

  23. Pump Specifications

  24. Aquarium Information Summary/Background

For every full aquatic article:
Please scroll down to the navigation list and scroll more for descriptions of each article.

Please note, some of the articles both here and in Aquarium & Pond Answers are more basic (such as Goldfish Basics), however others such as Aquarium Lighting are intentionally more in-depth and need to be read in full (often multiple times) to fully understand.

Scroll to the Summary section for more about this subject!

Back To Top

Remember, it is your purchases here (both small & large) that keeps these world class information articles free.
Purchasing elsewhere such as Amazon or will only result in this free information going away someday!!!

Or please consider a donation (especially International users), even just $5 helps.
As AAP provides little income for its owner after paying staff (including to help others) & upkeep of this information!

If only 10% of users of this information donated $5, this information will be able to remain free or simply exist in the future!
As sale of support products that in the past paid for this free information (such as aquarium/pond treatments, UV lamps, light, pumps) are but a fraction of what they once were and no longer pays for this information upkeep and sponsorships.
Or think of it this way: Most persons would not go to a full service restaurant and not leave a tip. Even if you walked into PetCo or any other "brick & mortar" retail establishment and they helped you with a question such as your sick fish, most would not leave without a purchase. Yet our stats software now shows that 99% of our information users no longer support this information monetarily!
It is also noteworthy that the big discounters most often do not sell the same version of a product we carry if they sell it at all (examples include UV Sterilizers/UVC Lamps, & medications such as Medicated Wonder Shells, Merbromin, & Yellow Powder), and trying to do something halfway is often a recipe for poor results.

AAP, American Aquarium YouTube Home
American Aquarium YouTube Home

AAP's YouTube Channel with many videos condensing our founder's articles (Carl Strohmeyer).

Everything Aquatic Forum
Everything Aquatic
Got a Question? Bring it too the original "Everything Aquatic" Forum (beware of a copycat forum started in 2012 that does not have the information nor the founder present to help you with your questions).
This is the best place to reach AAP Founder Carl S.

Other recommended forums:
EVERYTHING AQUATIC-FACEBOOK EDITION A new version of Everything Aquatic for those who prefer using the Facebook interface.

FRESHWATER FISHUES·Sick Fish Place A great place to discuss sick fish and much more on Facebook.

For those seeking quick answers based on real professional aquarium keeping knowledge (not Amazon Affiliate aquarium information sites which are often terrible in their content, even though easy to read), consider our sister web site "Fish Beginner" started by a friend of our founder (Carl Strohmeyer).

It is written in a more smart phone friendly format for easy reading with quick "bites" of information that then have links to more in depth information, including here on AAP's Aquarium Information & "Aquarium/Pond Answers".

Fish Beginner

Back To Top

Aquarium, Pond Answers

AQUARIUM AND POND ANSWERS has unique question and answer posts taken from questions on different aquarium forums or simply asked directly.

This "sister" IN DEPTH website of American Aquarium and also mostly authored by Carl Strohmeyer. Is a great place to look for answers, which are not at all or completely answered at other aquarium or pond sites.

See Aquarium/Pond Answers Directory for a categorical directory listing of articles here.

Aquarium Answers Articles
(In order of writing/posting)

  1. Fish Diseases | How to Treat Sick Fish A MUST READ!!!

  2. Whirling Disease (Myxobolus cerebralis) in Fish

  3. Reef Aquarium Chemistry Maintenance

  4. Use of RO, DI, Softwater in Aquariums

  5. Bio Load in Aquarium or Pond

  6. Fish TB - Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

  7. PUR vs PAR in Aquarium Lighting - Including Spectrographs

  8. Head Pressure in Aquarium and Pond Water Pumps

  9. Betta Fin Rot

  10. Angelfish Virus/Aids

  11. Activated Carbon

  12. Fish Baths/Dips as an Aid to Treatment - Including for Swim Bladder Treatment

  13. Streptococcus Gram Positive Bacterium in Aquariums, Eye Infections

  14. Hydrogen Sulfide Production in Anaerobic De-Nitrification for Aquarium/Ponds

  15. Fish Shipping

  16. Aquarium Size - Fish Stunting

  17. Aquarium Algae - including BBA & Brown Algae

  18. Aquarium Salt (Sodium Chloride) in Freshwater Aquariums

  19. Betta Habitat - Wild Bettas to Domestic Betta Environment Parameters

  20. HITH - Hole in the Head Disease

  21. Aquarium Protein Skimmers, Ozonizers

  22. Power Head - Water Pump Review

  23. Keeping Mollies in an Aquarium, Molly Disease

  24. Basic Fish Anatomy - Fin Identification

  25. Aquarium Moving/Power Failures

  26. Octopus as Aquarium Pets

  27. Aquarium Nitrates

  28. Ichthyophonus Fungus in Fish

  29. Aquarium and Pond Filter Media - Types (Mechanical, Bio, Chemical, etc.)

  30. Aquarium Water Conditioners (also Pond)

  31. Fish Parasites - Trematodes & Monogeneans, Annelids & Nematodes, Flukes, Internal Worms, Detritus Worms (often confused with Planaria), Micro Worms

  32. Aquarium Silicone Applications - Aquarium Repair and DIY Aquarium Glass Thickness

  33. Pond Veggie Filters - DIY Bog Filter

  34. Comparing Plaster of Paris and Aquarium Products such a Wonder Shells

  35. Neon Tetra Disease - Identification, Prevention and Possible Treatment

  36. Aquarium Test Kits - what they are used for and their importance.

  37. Sexing Fish - The Differences Between Males and Females (If Any)

  38. Chocolate Chip, Knobby, and Fromia Starfish

  39. Freshwater Velvet/Costia

  40. Usnic Acid as a Fish Remedy

  41. Aquarium Heaters - Types, Information

  42. Lateral Line in Fish and Lateral Line Disease - Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE)

  43. What I Should Know About Tap Water for my Aquarium

  44. Can Black Ghost Knife Fish Give an Electric Shock?

  45. Bio Wheel Review - Do Bio-Wheels Really Work?

  46. How do Fish Drink? Proper Osmotic Function

  47. Cyclops, and Predatory Damselfly Larvae

  48. Betta with Dropsy - Treatment and Prevention of Dropsy in all Fish

  49. pH and KH problems in African Cichlid Aquarium

  50. Aquarium Gravel - Which Size?

  51. Blue green algae, Cyanobacteria in Ponds/Aquariums

Back To Top

American Aquarium Products along with "Aquarium/Pond Answers", and our VAST library of information found NOWHERE else, in the world is currently FOR SALE for the right offer.
We hope to carry forward our company's 40+ year legacy of unique information (this also includes several other web and blog sites as well). However all reasonable offers including for inventory will be entertained.

Only serious inquiries from qualified potential buyers will be considered!

Aquarium Chemistry, KH, pH, GH
Aquarium Chemistry - Calcium, Electrolytes, KH, GH, pH, and Magnesium Many aquarists overlook the need for all aspects of aquarium chemistry with the effect of a proper KH (Carbonate hardness).
This is especially important with livebearers, goldfish, African cichlids, brackish and many other freshwater fish. The production of Nitrates (nitric acid) will slowly reduce your pH, but a proper KH will keep a more stable pH.

As well, a correct understanding of what GH test does and does not show as to providing necessary positive mineral ions/electrolytes.

Finally, there is much misunderstanding of Calcium and its importance to ALL fish from Discus to marine. This article explains this and also provides outside references as well. Also, information about the set-up and maintenance of an Amazon River/SE Asia low pH aquarium.

How Sponge filtration, filters work, truths, myths
How Sponge Filters Work and the Benefits Sponge Filtration: Sponge Filters for aquariums and ponds.
Sponge filtration is an often overlooked type of filtration for freshwater tanks, bowls, and even marine aquariums.

How Sponge filtration, filters work, truths, myths
Ultra-Violet Sterilization - How UVs Work Explains the benefits and myths about aquarium & pond UV sterilization, including clarification. What is UVC and what is the proper UVC wave length? For replacement UV Bulbs/Lamps.

Aquarium Medications and Treatments
Aquarium Medications Treatment, How They Work, and Which Ones Not To Use Information about different aquarium (and pond) treatments. Gram negative or gram positive applications where they apply. Not all human medications (or veterinary medications meant for cat or dog disease treatment) are practical in most aquarium or pond applications. A good example is penicillin and ampicillin.

Aquarium Filtration
Aquarium Filtration There are several different kinds of aquarium filters and methods. Most work best when used in combination to compliment each other, this redundancy is also important for peace of mind incase one filter fails, another will keep your aquarium filtering. This article includes DIY and trouble shooting as well.

Aquarium Freshwater Basics
Basic Freshwater Aquarium Principles A useful freshwater aquarium resource, which is a must read for those thinking of getting a freshwater tank or have been just given one as a gift. This article deals with these subjects:

• Aquarium • Substrate • Filters • Heater • Water Conditioning • Cycling • Live Plants • Fish Acclimation • Feeding • Cleaning • Chemistry • Smelly Water • Green Water • Cloudy Water

For freshwater filter suggestions based on tank size: Freshwater Aquarium Filter Set-Up Suggestions

Freshwater Aquarium Fish Profiles, information, aquarist notes
Freshwater Fish Profiles Information, Pictures, and User Contributed Profiles of many Fish kept in Aquariums/Ponds.

Saltwater Basics
Aquarium Saltwater (Marine) Basics & Information Nano, Advanced, & Reef Including these subjects:

• Nano Reefs • Filtration • Live Rock • Lighting • Test Kits • Water Chemistry • Proper fish feeding • Species specific diets • Poisonous Marine • Marine Ich Treatment • UV Sterilization

For Saltwater set-up suggestions: Saltwater Aquarium Set-Up/System Suggestions

For a article, which has more about different beginner saltwater fish (and more), along with pictures. Basic to Advanced Marine Fish & Invertebrates - Suggestions, pictures & information for selection of saltwater fish and other aquarium inhabitants.

Sick fish help
Aquarium Disease Prevention Proven steps for a healthy aquarium. With many aquarium over the years, steps have been found to help with sick fish before there's really a problem. Prevention has been the best remedy for aquarium health.

Sick Fish Experts- Disease Prevention and Treatment

Aquarium Disease Prevention | Sick Fish Help

Best aquarium lighting
Aquarium Lighting - Kelvin, Nanometers, PAR, and More When choosing lighting for an aquarium, there's much more to consider than watts per gallon. The 2-4 watts per gallon for a Nano reef or freshwater plant aquarium, less for fish, more for hard coral. It's a start, but is very general. There are other factors effecting lighting for your aquarium than just watt output.
For example: You cannot compare the output of a 150 watt Metal Halide to a 150 watt outdoor floodlight. Sometimes it comes down to comparing apples to oranges.

This article will explain in detail the important parameters and aspects of lighting. This is also my most updated article do to the amount of new information and research constantly available in this field, including the new SHO, T-2, LED lamps and more!

Planted aquarium help
Aquarium Plants - Substrate, Ferts, Co2, Lighting, and others Deals with several aspects of aquarium plant keeping, also aquarium plant information about Hornwort, Anubias, Java Fern, Java Moss, and more.

Also information about algae control, algae eating fish (Oto Catfish) and Snails (nerite).

Goldfish Care, Basics, Information, Help, Filters, Water Chemistry
Goldfish Basics - Diseases Prevention & Treatment Important to successful goldfish keeping. Also breeding basics. Many goldfish are imported in very cold water, in crowded conditions, making them very susceptible to disease (especially Ich).

Aquarium Cleaning
Reasons and Methods for Aquarium Cleaning This article will help you keep fish happy and healthy and your tank a compliment to your home furnishings. Reasons included:

• Nitrate, Ph and KH control • Removal of harmful elements • Rinsing of bio-sponges, media, ect • Removal of waste • Control of algae growth • DIY Python Style Super Gravel Vacuum

Also a cleaning video and methods explained.

Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle
Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle and Cycling Freshwater and saltwater, including nitrification, de-nitrification, and methods for aquarium cycling.

Aquarium Redox
The Redox Potential A Redox Potential in the -200-400 mV range for human studies has been shown to have the same affect as anti-oxidant preparations such as Vitamin C (and many others). This article shows that the health of aquarium fish can be maintained proper electrolytes and by a UV Sterilizer, not just by the killing of potential disease pathogens, but by the maintenance of a proper Redox Potential. This is an article every serious aquarist SHOULD READ!

Fish Food Information
Fish Nutrition There is a lot of confusion about what constitutes fish nutrition and what ingredients are needed for proper fish nutrition, growth and health. The aquarist needs to understand there are similarities and differences between fish and other animals.
For example: Fish get most of their energy needs from fat, but in humans carbohydrates are a better source. Another point is amino acids (the building blocks of proteins). Almost all animals have different amino acid needs. For example: Cats need Taurine in there diet or they can suffer heart problems.

Fish Food Spirulina
Spirulina Algae The aquatic health benefits for Tropical, Marine and Goldfish- Spirulina a planktonic blue-green algae found in warm water alkaline volcanic lakes rich in raw protein and seven major vitamins: A1, B1, B2, B6, B12 (one of the best natural sources for B12), C and E. It naturally contains beta-carotene, color enhancing pigments, and whole range of minerals. In addition, Spirulina has a 62% amino acid content and contains all essential fatty acids and eight amino acids required for complete nutrition.

Aquarium Ich
Aquarium Ich - Ichthyophthirius multifilis and Cryptocaryon irritans This article deals with a common disease (protozoan infection) in freshwater and saltwater. Also, the treatment, identification, and life cycle. The scientific name for freshwater ich is “Ichthyophthirius multifilis”. The marine protozoan causing Ich is “Cryptocaryon irritans”. Both organisms cause whitish spots, called “cysts”, to appear on the bodies and fins of the infested fishes.

Included in this article are: Identification, Life Cycle, Prevention, and Treatments.

Fish Oodimium
Marine Oodinium - Amyloodinium Ocellatum Also occasionally known as Coral Fish Disease or Saltwater Velvet.

Fish Columnaris
Flexibacter - Columnaris Proper Treatment. Also Identification and Treatment of FUNGUS (Saprolegnia). Question and answer information about Flavobacterium columnare (Columnaris), which is often mistaken for true fungus.

Fish Vibrio, Aeromonas
Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Furunculosis Vibrio a lactose-fermenting, gram-negative bacteria, opportunistic pathogen, is found in aquatic environments. Vibrio is more common in Saltwater.

One of the most common infections in freshwater fish is caused by the rod-shaped bacteria Aeromonas, which is also a gram negative, lactose-fermenting bacterium. Aeromonas is another common cause of hemorrhagic septicemia, especially in freshwater. Also information about Pop-Eye and the coldwater version of Aeromonas: Furunculosis.

Goldfish Feeding
Proper Goldfish Feeding A quality Koi and goldfish food starts with quality aquatic based ingredients and proper feeding.

Pump Specifications
Water Pump Specifications Recommendations, Limitations, and Suggestions (Pond & Aquarium). A guide to choosing the correct aquarium or pond water pump.

Aquarium Tubing Help
Aquarium Tubing Installation For help in connecting aquarium tubing to hose barbs or similar connection.

Back To Top


As noted near the beginning of this page, some of the articles both here and in Aquarium & Pond Answers are of a more basic nature (such as Goldfish Basics). However, others such as Aquarium Lighting are intentionally more in depth and need to be read in full (often multiple times) to fully understand rather than just snips.

A little background: Carl has come by his knowledge not because he was anyone special, but as others who have known him over his life pointed out that he had great management skills, which includes managing and dissemination of information.

More over, Carl has allowed many persons over the years to mentor him in many aspects of the aquarium keeping (or even aquarium building as he apprenticed for a year with Prestige Aquarium building aquariums). Mentoring in particular seems to be a lost art of late in this hobby & even industry. Carl has continued to allow this mentoring to further and constantly improve these articles.

Carl has hobby experience going back to 1968 and started in a Pet/Aquarium Store in 1977, however what has made the most difference in his knowledge/experience is the 1000s of aquariums he has had under his professional care (including a well known Polynesian restaurant with over 100 aquariums where he and staff were present 6 days a week with full control of every aspect of aquarium care). While many can claim to work at an aquarium store, Carl has pointed out that this added little to what he already knew because the aquarium/pet store environment is NOT conducive to real information gathering with fish in and out and products being only used for short times with manufacturers sometimes providing less than honest product information (in other words, often what was done and sold was as per the distributor sales persons suggested).

When Carl first started writing these articles for the internet (something clients asked for years), Carl made them VERY basic. His early feedback was rather harsh as many said it was "nothing special". Then some who knew Carl better said, although they were still better than many in content due to less anecdotal information, they did not come close to the delivering the information they knew Carl could and his constant research should be reflected. Many experts in SEO told him similar as well.

So now, although some of the articles are still more basic and not all that unique, many however will have well researched information people will not find elsewhere in one location and this information is only best understood when read in full.

Carl will make his point as to why he feel it is so important these articles be read in full and not in snips which can result in anecdotal or poor information dissemination.

"In the 1980s Carl was mentored by an Endocrinologist (MD) whom was also an avid fish keeper (mostly marine). He helped Carl much understand the ins and outs of medications, and one time gave him an in-depth medical article, which he though had useful information, which could be applied to fish as well. Much of the information was not readily easy to understand for Carl, so he skipped over many sections and gleaned the points he wanted.

Later, Carl was making some points to the doctor and he stopped Carl and said he was incorrect and if he had read the article in full, to which he replied, 'no'. He then said there's no way Carl could understand this article without reading it in full and applying ALL the information contained there in".

The point is, often it is easy and unfortunately ALL too common in this hobby to read just what we want, and many web sites as well as social media are good at satisfying this basically lazy desire (of which we have all have been guilty of at some point), however this often leads to poor understandings of the subject or worse.

Another point is Carl does not like to make diagnostic charts or similar such as lighting charts for aquariums as there are too many variables making such charts or comparisons often inaccurate (as the mentor of his noted above also pointed out to him).

Finally, a point for those who stick to the closely held anecdotal beliefs, which so badly permeate the aquarium keeping hobby rather than read researched articles and CITED REFERENCES such as these here or at Aquarium/Pond Answers, is best summed up by another Mentor of Carl's, (Reggie) at an aquarium supply wholesaler, which finished his business career there (after most of his decades of business in different industries specializing in making poorly managed businesses successful again) told Carl this:

"I have never seen a more dishonest and back stabbing business than the Aquarium industry". His point was about how often he found persons in this business/hobby would outright lie or simply ignore new/good science to either make a sale or not give up their tightly held anecdotal beliefs.

Often these persons will make personal attacks on people such as Carl when they cannot refute his research and experience. Or they will make "red herring" arguments that an article is not peer reviewed so therefore it is not credible. Of course the peer reviewed argument is totally false when one considers how often Carl updates these articles over the years based on constructive criticism & research, far more than any other aquarium/pond keeping information articles or YouTube videos (some AAP articles just over their Internet life such as Aquarium Lighting have had over 200 revisions based on peer critique so as to improve content).

As per those who would disagree and their critique based on a number of persons disagreeing does not get into a revision, here is an analogy: If a half a dozen "peers" sit around a table giving a thumbs up, because when they look out over the ocean and see that there is a clear end, this proves the world flat. Unfortunately this does not make it true."
Case in point is Carl's Aquarium Redox Article, where it has gotten a lot of positive reviews from outside the aquarium industry (it mirror medical research papers too), but not within the industry as many from so-called peers often mock what is now common knowledge in the medical community. However this is rapidly changing as of 2016 with more and more research in water electromagnetism, and water rH is finally starting to give Carl his cutting edge research the kudos it deserves.

Frankly those in research outside this sometimes closed minded hobby have much more funding and cannot earn a living if they were attempting to please the status quo in the aquarium hobby/industry. This same problem is common when it comes to aquarium lighting where many refuse to look at either the history of the hobby or outside the hobby into research and practical use and instead will make these same "red herring" arguments in a vain attempt to refute his information. Fish nutrition is another aspect where anecdotal information is often repeated while science based research and long term experience gets shut out (which Carl has lot of long term experience).

The bottom line is the "red herring" argument used to sometimes attack Carl by closed minded persons (often with little practical long term experience themselves) is that the peer review process itself is extremely flawed as it allows for bias, clear mistakes and much more to get by. Many have now called this process into question.

Peer review: a flawed process at the heart of science and journals

The case against peer review

The case against peer review, red herring argument

Carl Strohmeyer: Aquarium Keeping Bio

By Carl Strohmeyer, PAMR 40+ years (Professional Aquarium Maintenance & Research)

For Customer Feedback Emails

Aquarium Information

If you have found this site helpful (or the sister site Aquarium and Pond Answers), please consider a donation to help with the 100s of hours of research and regular updates that go into these articles (By Carl Strohmeyer):

Back To Top

| Weekly-Newsletter | Basic_Aquarium_Principles | Basic_Saltwater | Aquarium_Disease | Aquarium_Lighting | Goldfish_disease | Aquarium_cleaning | Nitrogen_Cycle | Redox_Potential | Clear-Pond | Aquarium_Filtration | Aquarium_Medication | Aquarium UV Sterilization | Vibrio_Aeromonas | Aquarium_Ich | Columnaris | Aquarium-KH | sponge_filtration | Aquarium-Plants | Quality_Fish_Food | Oodinium |

| Return Home | Aquarium_Information | Aquarium Products | Downloads | FAQ | Contact Us | View Cart | Other |

Copyright © 2023, American Aquarium Products. All rights reserved.