POND CARE INFORMATION; From Filters to Maintenance for a "A Clear Pond"
By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 35+ years experience
 ADEQUATE WATER CIRCULATION AND MOVEMENT (Pumps).
A general principle (not a rule) of about 50-200 gph per 100 gallons can work for this (A lower proportional gph for large ponds, a higher proportional gph for small ponds). This can be achieved with more than one water pump.
Dissolved oxygen is VERY important in ponds (partly for the Redox Balance). All oxygen is exchanged at the surface, so good surface agitation over the entire pond is best. Waterfalls, fountains, air stones all can achieve this.
Low dissolved oxygen levels and a low KH & GH (below 50/100 ppm respectively) affect your fish’ ability to perform osmoregulation & Redox Balance will be poor. If these parameters are poor, this will allow for much more opportunistic infections.
Further Reference: Aquarium Answers; Fish Osmoregulation
The fountain head in the picture to the left (click to enlarge) is an excellent way to aerate.
Some examples/product resource are available here:
*Rio 1700 and Fountain Head
*SunSun Fountain Head.
Make sure in winter months to de-ice and circulate water to the surface for optimum fish health.
For further information about GH/KH, please see this article:
CALCIUM, KH, GH, IN AQUARIUMS & PONDS
For further information about Redox Potential, please see this article:
REDOX POTENTIAL IN AQUARIUMS & PONDS; How it Relates to Proper Aquatic Health
 GOOD FILTRATION.
Good filtration, especially biological is essential to maintain a healthy pond with the only exception being with a “flow through/spring fed” pond.
Readers might note that I did not include skimmers in my list above. While popular, I personally do not care for pond skimmers as these often tend to trap water lilies, hyacinth, and other floating pond plants all the while providing little to the quality of pond filtration (other than removal of floating leaf debris, especially in autumn).
I have found when I took over a pond care contract for a client that already have a skimmer, I would later disconnect the skimmer after adding a Veggie Filter. Part of the problem is many of the ponds I was called to consult on "after they were built" were built by "pool guys" and skimmers are great for pools, but not ponds and these builders often knew little to nothing about building a living pond, including a bog/veggie filter.
In the end, the pond actually was MORE clear with more natural looking floating plants too!
So avoid the sales pitch by many, do NOT purchase a pond skimmer by ANY maker!
The picture to the above shows a Via Aqua Multi-Purpose Pond Pump embedded in loose volcanic rock (for added pre-filtration as noted earlier) connected to a Pressurized Pond Filter and then to a High Output Pond UV Sterilizer/Clarifier.
This picture displays how a large pump (as shown with the high flow VA Pump) can be utilized for more than one function, including multistage filtration, UV Sterilization, a fountain and even can be diverted for watering a Veggie Filter.
Please note that a control valve may be needed on both sides of the diversion ‘T’, otherwise the water will follow the “path of least resistance”, put another way if your water flow is too slow through the UV Sterilizer/Filter side of this example, it may be that the return is too high above the other return and simply lowering the return will solve this problem. As well after splitting a return line, the lines should not be combined later in the return. Please read the UV Sterilizations section for more on this subject.
*SunSun Premium Pressurized Pond Filter with UV
*TMC Pond Advantage Premium VERY High Output UVC Sterilizer
I generally do not recommend the Pond Master Submersible & especially the Becket filters as they come out of the box; they clog easily and are not efficient filters unless modified.
HOWEVER the Pondmaster 1000/1700 can be vastly improved by unscrewing the screws in each corner and adding select pond capable volcanic rock biological filter media to this area under the tray (as the Pondmaster only utilizes two pads that only perform mechanical, some chemical, & NO essential bio filtration).
In fact the PondMaster can be an excellent bio filter for the money if purchased with this volcanic rock which increases bio capacity by over 500%, however MOST Sellers of this filter sell it on the "cheap" and unfortunately do not include this, in part because they have no professional experience and because they are attempting to maximize profits while keeping the price artificially low.
Pondmaster Submersible Pond Filters UNIQUELY sold ONLY at AAP with Volcanic Filter Media
Volcanic Rock is excellent for this or BETTER yet would be SeaChem Matrix. Both of these would add considerably to bio filtration of your pond by adding to your filter.
*Volcanic Rock; Nitrifying and de-nitrifying Filter Media
*SeaChem Pond Matrix; High porosity media
In fact Pond Matrix provides the best internal macroporous surface area of ANY product and is an excellent compliment to a pressurized filter, waterfall filter, drum, or large sand/bead filters such as the AquaBead.
These macropores are ideally sized for the support of nitrifying and de-nitrifying bacteria. This allows Pond Matrix, unlike other forms of biomedia, to remove nitrate along with ammonia and nitrite, simultaneously and in the same filter and rarely if ever needs to be changed if properly cared for.
Pond Matrix also makes an excellent support for root development of aquatic plants and may be used for Pond Veggie/Bog Filters or in pots
I also suggest replacing the black carbon impregnated pad in the Pondmaster with a cut to fit Poly Pad and add carbon or Zeolite underneath the tray (also in a filter bag).
*Poly Pad Micron filter media
*API Ammo Chips Zeolite Filter Media
I prefer pressurized pond filters such as the SunSun UVC Pressurized or others for their efficiency and ease of hiding in the ground.
These filters include the popular Tetra, Lifeguard Pressurized, and Cyprio, which are excellent too, but tend to be over priced, especially considering Tetra charges almost $200 more for their UV feature when a separate and VASTLY better TMC Pond Advantage would be better (see the UV Section of this article).
Product Resource: Pressurized Pond Filter; SunSun with Volcanic Rock from AAP
The SunSun model pictured to the left, is not much different in design than other pressurized filters, rather what sets it apart is that it is also is supplied with highly bio efficient volcanic rock and and yet is still a lower price and is my recommendation!
Pressurized filters can be buried in the ground or place behind a water feature easily. Pressurized pond filters are very good bio filters especially when price is considered and these are also excellent mechanical filters.
However many if not most pressurized pond filters are sold with attached/built in UV Sterilizers which when the flow rate/dwell time is considered usually provides only some green water clarification and absolutely NO level one sterilization.
A SEPARATE UV such as the TMC Pond Pro Advantage is vastly more effective when plumbed properly including placed after an otherwise excellent pressurized pond filter.
Product Resource: TMC Pond Pro Advantage TRUE Level ONE UV Sterilizers
Further Reference, a MUST Read for pond keepers!!
UV Sterilization; Facts & Information; How Ultraviolet Sterilizers work in ponds
Do NOT confuse an aquarium canister filter with a pressurized pond filter, where as although a pressurized pond filter can be used for an aquarium, the use of an aquarium canister filter for a pond will result in failure since most aquarium canister filters have top mounted motors that will loose their siphon in most pond applications, as well an aquarium canister filter is not nearly as rugged in design for the pond environment (I had a couple of service calls many years back where customers attempted to utilize an aquarium canister filter for their pond and results were not good!).
Small or Patio Pond (under 250-500 gallons depending upon fish stocking and natural debris fallout);
For small ponds and patio ponds (ponds built in above ground "Rubber Made" or other similar containers such as converted horse waterers), large sponge filters are excellent bio filters and reasonable mechanical filters. They are inexpensive, easy to service, and simple to attach with either a power head pump or and air stone.
There now is a specific patented Pond Sponge Filter called the Hydro-Pond by ATI, with three models; one air driven, two pump driven. They are useful up to 1500 gallons and more can be used for larger ponds or in combination with other filters. The Hydro Pond IV also makes an excellent pre filter for pond pumps before water is circulated to another filter such as a pressurized filter.
For "patio ponds", these filters can perform very well since the only weakness is inability to handle large debris, but with patio ponds this is rarely a problem. In fact one client of mine with a 150 gallon patio pond had a small Becket pond filter he purchased at Home Depot that did not keep his pond clean, however when he switched to a Hydro Pond #2 his water while still somewhat green was much more clean and the fish could be readily seen.
I highly recommend the Hydro Pond filters for small pond owners on a budget, owners of patio ponds, or just to add redundancy to existing pond filters (often is larger ponds)
Product Resource: Patented Hydro-Pond; Sponge Filtration for Pond
A top notch (& unique) filter for ponds up to 500 gallons would be a TMC V2 1500 Fluidized Filter when combined to a pre-filter system as pictured to the left.
This system would work for larger ponds when multiplied such as two for up to a 1000 gallon pond.
The "SunSun CHJ-1503; Small Pond Pump/Filter", "Pondmaster 1700" are other rgood filter choices for small/medium ponds under 500 to 1000 gallons. These filters along with the Hydro-Pond Sponge and Fluidized are an excellent compliment to a Veggie Filter (which I recommend for any pond).
With the SunSun CHJ-1503 or similar Submersible Pond Filter you can easily attach a UV Sterilizer to the “diverter” valve (just above the filter and below the fountain head) for improved water clarity.
Another way to add filtration as well as a UV Clarifier is to use one of the before mentioned submersible filters along with the SunSun CUP series true UV Sterilizers that are a self contained filter, pump, and UV clarifier (these are mentioned in more depth in the UV section of this article). This would make for a simple "plug & play" redundant pond filter system for most ponds under 750 gallons
See the UV Sterilizer section further in this article for a diagram.
*SunSun CHJ-1503 Pond Filter With Fountain
*Pondmaster 1700 WITH Volcanic Rock ONLY at AAP
*Premium Fluidized Sand Bed Pond or Aquarium Filters
Medium Pond (250-2000 gallons depending upon fish stocking and natural debris fallout);
Bio falls such as the Savio Livingponds Filters are also excellent pond filters for medium and many larger ponds.
These filters can also be DIY (Do it yourself) or you can start with a basic Bio Falls “skeleton” filter (pictured to the left) and then add bio filter media (such as Volcanic rock) and place a Polyester Media on top.
However if you have purchased a unit such as Savio Livingponds Waterfall filter, you can add extra media to meet your pond needs and possibly save money. For instance I have often substituted Volcanic Rock of different sizes (depending on coarseness of filtration needed) for bio and mechanical media in these and similar filter.
This article about Aquarium filter media can also be applied to ponds:
Aquarium & Pond Filter Media, Material; Mechanical, Bio, Chemical
Plastic grates and even rocks formed into basin can be used to construct the bio and mechanical filter for flow through either prior to a water all or after (prior is more common). If a cement product is used in construction, I recommend sealing it with a water proof sealer available at most Home Improvement Stores.
Use of volcanic rock for bio filtration and Coarse Polyester Media (pictured to the left) can help with the filtration need of your bio falls project as well as other similar projects such as a Veggie Filter pre-filter trap.
Product Resource: Coarse Poly Pads; Excellent for DIY Pond projects
*As noted earlier, Pressurized Pond Filters are an excellent choice for medium ponds. These can used with other filters for improved filtration and redundancy or even larger yet ponds.
You can also use multiples of Pressurized Pond Filters for larger ponds. As well even a smaller pond can utilize these simple yet effective filters, especially where the bio load is high.
This is probably one of my favorite pond filter types to use either by itself, in multiples or often with other pond filter types.
Two aspects of this filter type I like is their ability to go inline from the pump to any water feature, such as a water fall, while maintaining water pressure (no need for gravity feed). The other aspect I like is these can be partly buried to improve the pond aesthetics.
Product Resource: SunSun Premium Pressurized Pond Filter
*Another filter that works well with small and many medium sized ponds is the barrel style filter by Tetra and Coralife; these are excellent bio filters, but poor mechanical filters. They also are hard to hide as they have to use gravity to return water back into the pond after the pump first supplies these filters with un-filtered water.
This filter too can be a DIY project using a large sterilized drum.
Pond Filters of Note & Larger Pond Filters:
*A filter that is also used is pool style sand filters. I have used these filters in many of my largest pond installations (over 5,000 gallons).
Despite what pundits for these over priced monstrosities say, they are not originally designed for ponds. The fine sand therein will often compact and the water then tends to follow the path of least resistance thru these filters, leaving areas on anaerobic bacteria producing poisonous Hydrogen Sulfide.
DO NOT be fooled by their high price (often well over $1000), I can tell you from vast experience with them that they are not worth it!!
That said, if you already have one, I recommend adding volcanic rock and/or SeaChem Pond Matrix to improve upon this problem and also allow for nitrate removal via de-nitrification.
*Fluidized Sand or Moving Bed Filters;
These types of filters are purely for nitrifying (removal of ammonia & nitrites but not nitrates), however they are excellent at performing this task (and in fact the BEST)!
I do recommend pre-filtration of some sort such as coarse rocks near an intake or at the very least a coarse mesh screen to allow for maximum effectiveness.
Of these types, the Fluidized is the most efficient from what I have found, especially the third generation models such as the TMC V2 1500 Fluidized Filter. However these standard Fluidized Filters are only capable for ponds up to 500 gallons unless multiples are used or as a compliment to other filters.
Product Resource: Premium Fluidized Sand Bed Pond, Aquarium Filters
The Nexus Moving Bed Filter or TMC Pro Pond Fluidized Filters are a potential consideration for large ponds as their design lends itself better especially to ponds over 2500 gallons.
The best is the TMC Pro Pond FBF80 Fluidized Filters with the capacity to handle 176 lbs of bio mass respectively (this is a LOT of fish!). This works out on average to a 2500 gallon to 5000 gallon pond. Their size alone belies their large pond capacity with the FBF80 measuring 61 inches tall and 13 inches wide.
Future Product Resource: TMC Pro Pond FBF80 Fluidized Filters
With either of these filters, I would strongly recommend a DIY Veggie/Bog filter to provide nitrate removal via plant roots end de-nitrification.
DIY Pond Veggie, Bog Plant Filters
The picture to the left demonstrates a DIY barrel type pond filter that could be built by anyone with reasonable DIY abilities.
I would suggest using volcanic rock and/or SeaChem Pond Matrix in one of the filter media layers with poy pads or other mechanical media types in the other layers.
To the left is a diagram of a very basic "DIY Gravity Flow In-Line Pond Filter" (principle is similar to Tetra or Coralife barrel filters).
Volcanic rock makes an excellent filter media for DIY pond filters, waterfall filters, veggie filters (for the base), and many types of commercial filters such as the Savio.
Please click on the picture for more information.
For information about different filter media that can be used in your pond filter, please visit this article:
Aquarium and Pond Filter Media
 PLANT FILTRATION (Often called Veggie or Bog Filters);
This is a very important part of pond keeping and filtration.
 UV STERILIZATION (& Algae Control):
Although not always necessary in a well planted, well shaded, well filtered aquarium; these devices are still very useful.
For more information about correct Pond UV sterilization and how it works please visit this site;
This diagram shows a Via Aqua BH2000 Filter/Pump (similar to the before mentioned Pondmaster or SunSun Pond Filters) connected to a UV Sterilizer via the built in diverter valve. This valve is common to most similar fountains and filters such as the Pondmaster 1700, SunSun CHJ-1503, and many more.
Please click on the picture to enlarge for a better view
Further Pond UV Sterilizer/Clarifier Suggestions;
For Small Ponds, self contained Internal/Submersible UV Sterilizers are growing in popularity, however I would caution prospective buyers that the first generation models have problems with electrical failure and are not efficient.
The newer 3rd generation Internal UV Filter/Pumps (such as the SunSun 13 Watt; picture to the left) are much improved, however even these are only best for ponds up to 1500 gallons (and this is assuming other filtration). In most real world ponds I would not use this past a 700 gallon pond and again this is assuming other filtration (although multiple units can be used together for larger ponds).
This said, for those desiring UV Clarification but not desiring to bother with plumbing, these Submersible UV Pumps are hard to beat.
These can also be used for larger ponds by strategically placing 2 or more of these UVs in as far apart from each other as possible.
Product Resource: Submersible UV Sterilizer Pump, Filter
I would also point out that while these UV/Filters do provide some filtration, this is intended primarily for pre-filtration prior to water entering the UV-C chamber.
The use of Volcanic Rock around your Internal UV filter is strongly suggested to prevent clogging by acting as a pre-filter. This will yield better results with your UV Clarification and add to your pond filtration.
Do not believe web sites or other dealers stating this is an all in one filter UV.
What the best of these is (such as the SunSun CUP-613 UV Filter); is a simple to use economical UV Sterilizer with filtration by itself maybe for a light bio load 100-200 gallon pond and otherwise additional filtration must be used (even a Hydro Pond Sponge Filter has vastly more bio capacity and would make an excellent inexpensive compliment to this UV Sterilizer in a pond under 500 gallons.
*Volcanic Rock Pond Filter Media
*Hydro Pond Sponge Filters
For larger ponds (over 2000 gallons) often placing two UV Sterilizers such as two SunSun 36 Watt UV will be more economical than one larger UV Sterilizer as when used with separate pumps, the flow pattern is often better, therefore the pond "turnover rate" (how often the entire pond water passes through the UV Clarifier) is generally slightly higher than one unit of say 75 watts that often costs more than double the price as well.
The use of one pump with two UV Sterilizers (or more) can also work well, provided the returns are in different locations of the pond for optimum circulation and water turnover in the UV Sterilizer, however I have still achieved the best results when two or more UVs are employed by using separate pumps with intakes and returns in separate locations of the pond to optimize water flow patterns through the UV Clarifier.
Product Resource: SunSun CUV-136 Compact UV Sterilizer
For very high volume pumps or extra large ponds units such as the TMC Professional 110 Watt UV Sterilizer would be an excellent choice.
This in fact is probably one of the best UV Sterilizers in its class, with high water exposure time even at high flow rates, without paying for often useless gimmicks. Although the advertised flow rate maximum is 9600 gph, I personally only recommend half this (about 4800 gph so as to aid in Redox balance), however this still allows for the largest of water pumps (especially once one considers loss of gph when head pressure is applied by lifting through water features and the UV itself). As well this would allow this UV Sterilizer to work via turnover of pond once every 2-3 hours of a pond up to 12,000 + gallons.
Product Resource: TMC Professional 110 Watt True UV Sterilizer
I should also note that spending more money for a pond UV Sterilizer/Clarifier with wipers or HO UV-C bulbs is often not money well spent, as the wipers are often gimmicks that easily break and do little even when functional. As well HO (high output) UVC lights often are very short and even with this higher output, these are often still not enough for the water flow that is usually applied to these UVs as per dwell time
For example, although a 50 Watt HO bulb of 18 inches will handle a higher water flow of a 25 watt UVC bulb of 18 inches, the flow rate is not doubled.
*PUVLF46H, 50 Watt HO UV lamp for Emperor UV
*25 Watt UV Lamp for Advantage, Custom Sealife and other UVs
Better is a unit with long exposure such as the before mentioned TMC Professional 110 Watt UV Clarifier or a couple of TMC Pro Clear UV30s as compared a Smart HO Two-Lamp 100 Watt UV Sterilizer. Or as another example, two TMC Pond Advantage Premium 25 Watt UV Sterilizeras compared to one Emperor 50 Watt UV.
The TMC Pro 110 Watt is not only vastly less expensive, it is a superior UV Sterilizer in terms of UVC exposure and performance, as well the TMC Professional 25 watt and more efficient yet TMC Pro Clear UV30 are recognized by many pond keepers in Europe (where these are the #1 premium UV Sterilizer) as one of the best UVs for their ponds and two of these Sterilizers often cost less than many gimmicky 50 watt UVs!.
Product Resource: Pond Advantage 15 & 25 Watt, High Dwell Time, True UV Sterilizers
For an article that deals with the question of pond filter placement in relation to a UV Sterilizer (as well as many other aspects of UV Sterilizer use), please follow this link:
Is the UV best placed after or before a filter in a pond
Another important consideration with the use of ANY UV Sterilizer for outdoor pond use is protection from direct weather exposure.
Despite some less than honest manufacturer claims, I have found that even UVs specifically designed for outdoor use succumb to the weather, often with damage to the ballast resulting in a UV Bulb failing to properly fire, especially a new premium hot cathode/low pressure bulb (these are much more efficient, but also require a higher voltage surge to fire). Even sunlight can cause indirect issues by causing too much heat build up that can damage ballast, connects, etc.
Ventilation is another common issue I have seen. Burying your UV or placing in an unventilated box is a sure fire way to shorten the life of your UV and lamps.
My suggestion is to cover the UV Sterilizer with flat rock (such as pictured) or suspend the UV in a structure that protects the UV from direct weather, including sunlight.
Make sure to change your UV Bulb/Lamp once per season or twice per year in warm climates such as So. California or Florida.
Also of importance, especially in recent years, is to make sure you replace your UV lamp/bulb with a true level 1 UV capable low pressure high efficiency hot cathode UV Bulb.
With the popularity of late of sellers such as Amazon or eBay, along with other discounters, the pressure to sell medium pressure or cold cathode UV bulbs to keep the price low is very common. These lower price bulbs only have a useful UVC output of about 1/4 to 1/3 that of the better true UVC lamps/bulbs, resulting in lower performance. Often these sellers market nail curing bulbs as aquarium/pond capable UV bulbs and then sell these for better mark ups at lower prices.
Further Information: Actual UV-C Emission from a UV Bulb; Aquarium or Pond
Product Resource: True Level Capable Low Pressure UV bulbs, Page 1
If you have problems with a new UV Bulb firing, please see this video and/or read this article:
UV Bulb Trouble Shooting Video
UV Troubleshooting Article
Finally, while I recommend a UV Sterilizer/Clarifier for most ponds, I find that many pond keepers are too dependent upon this device where as if the UV ceases to function the pond immediately turns pea soup green.
In my experience this indicates a pond that also is in need of better filtration, as the UV Clarifier should be a compliment to good filtration, not make up for poor filtration. The Veggie Filter I suggested earlier is a good idea, or simply adding more filters if your pond has some filtration, but your current filtration is not adequate.
Further Reference: DIY Pond Veggie Filters
 POND ALGAE (Green Water and Blanket weed)
For MUCH more about the control, prevention and treatment of pond algae, please read this article:
In a healthy pond, with a properly functioning nitrogen cycle, water changes can be minimal. I still recommend a water change of 10-20% per month on a healthy, fully functional pond. In a newer pond larger and more frequent changes may be necessary.
If a lot of leaves fall to the bottom of the pond vacuuming them or raking them out is important to prevent organic buildup.
Water changes also will help with pH and KH if your tap or well water is slightly alkaline and has a KH above 80 ppm.
Your pond filter should also be part of your pond cleaning schedule. With a pressurized filter such as a Pressurized Pond Filter, I recommend cleaning and rinsing once per month during pond season or more often if the flow rate slows down.
Veggie Filters should cleaned and trimmed at least once per season.
 POND CYCLING:
Generally speaking this process is about 99% the same as aquarium cycling, so I would strongly recommend reading this excellent article:
 POND CARE BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS
For sludge build up products such as SeaChem Pond Stability, Natural Environmental Beneficial Bacteria, or Microbe-lift are useful for aiding in the breakdown of sludge and other organic mulm through the action of bacteria and enzymes.
 POND FOAM:
Foam around waterfalls and other water features is not uncommon, however if this is a persistent problem, there may be other issues at play in your pond.
 POND CHEMISTRY (GH, KH, etc..);
This is important not just for fish health, but also for algae control as well. Besides ammonia, nitrites, and phosphates kept near 0 ppm, nitrates should be kept under 50 and the often forgotten GH and KH should be kept no lower than 100 and 50 ppm respectively.
Feeding a quality diet can be beneficial for growth, breeding, color, and even the environment as there is less nitrogenous waste to add to the water column.
This is a broad subject that is beyond the scope of this article, so I would suggest reading more specific articles, here are a few suggestions:
This is far a complete list, however many more can found in our Aquatic Information drop down list in the header bar or at Aquarium/Pond Answers.
One important point I will make and that is the importance of changing water (at least 25%) prior to every single treatment.
The reason is that ponds in particular generally have a high content of dissolved organics, floating algae or similar bio substances, much more so than the average aquarium. These organics will absorb many treatments, especially chemical treatments such as those that contain Malachite Green (such as Quick Cure, which is a very effective pond treatment of many small pond parasites).
By changing water first, this allows for more medications to be delivered to the pathogens causing disease, as well this will generally improve water conditions which in turn helps the fish fight off the infections/infestation better. This can also lower the amount of medication that might be needed to treat your pond as well.
I recommend this water change prior to any and all treatments.
A few suggested pond use treatment products that are biologically safe when used correctly, in particular for prevention are:
 WINTER POND CARE;
It is important in winter to keep at least a small section of your pond open for proper exchange of gasses (O2, CO2), if water can still flow into the pond through a water or aeration device, that will work. A minimum depth of 24” (deeper in climates where soil temperatures drop below 32 F) will provide enough water space under the ice for fish to hibernate (even in the coldest climates, ice will really extend more than 6-8”).
 POND BOTTOM, CONSTRUCTION, REPAIR, SUBSTRATE:
Construction and make up of your pond can be done in three different ways (and there is no one best way; the best way fits your pond size needs, climate and budget).
 SPRING FED POND (Also water level maintenance);
If you live in an area of natural springs or have creek flowing nearby, this can make for a very healthy, clear and natural pond.
 KOI, GOLDFISH, ROSY-RED FATHEADS & GOLDEN/BLUE ORFE;
Koi, Orfe and Goldfish are all from the family Cyprinidae.
 POND PREDATORS:
Herons have been the most common predator to my customers ponds that I have had to deal with. I do not like to add anything that detracts from the beauty of the ponds I maintained, so decoys were my first choice.
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